Hydrogen is the lightest chemical element which at standard conditions is in gaseous form with diatomic molecules. It is colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, and highly combustible. Hydrogen is the most abundant chemical element, estimated to contribute 75% of the universe’s mass. It is present in all living things as a molecule, but very scarce as a gas – less than one part per million by volume.
Hydrogen, when consumed in a fuel cell, produces only water. Hydrogen can be produced from a variety of resources, such as natural gas, nuclear power, biomass, and renewable power like solar and wind. These qualities make it an attractive fuel option for transportation and electricity generation. It can be used in cars, in houses, for portable power, and in many more applications.
Hydrogen is an energy carrier that can store, move, and deliver energy produced from other sources.
Today, hydrogen fuel can be produced through several methods. The most common methods are natural gas reforming (a thermal process), and electrolysis. Other methods include solar-driven and biological processes.
hydrogen and hydrogen-based fuels could avoid up to 6% of total cumulative emissions reductions, according to the International Energy Agency (IEA). The time is right to tap into hydrogen’s potential to play a key role in a clean, secure, and affordable energy future.
Clean hydrogen is enjoying unprecedented political and business momentum, with the number of policies and projects worldwide expanding rapidly.
Hydrogen can help tackle various critical energy challenges. It offers ways to decarbonize a range of sectors – including long-haul transport, chemicals, and iron and steel – where it is proving difficult to meaningfully reduce emissions. It can also help improve air quality and strengthen energy security.
Hydrogen can be used much more widely. Today, hydrogen is used mostly in oil refining and for the production of fertilizers. For it to make a significant contribution to clean energy transitions, it also needs to be adopted in sectors where it is almost completely absent at the moment, such as transport, buildings, and power generation.